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Study of Registration Practices of the
ONTARIO ASSOCIATION OF CERTIFIED ENGINEERING TECHNICIANS AND TECHNOLOGISTS, 2007

  1. 1. INTRODUCTION
  2. 2. BACKGROUND OF THE REGULATORY BODY
    1. a. Legislation
    2. b. Protected Titles
    3. c. Definition of the Profession
    4. d. Labour Market/Economic Trends
    5. e. New Developments Within the Profession
    6. f. Staffing
  3. 3. REGISTRATION PRACTICES
    1. a. Registration Requirements and Application Process
    2. b. Documentation Required from Internationally Trained Individuals
    3. c. Credential Assessment (Third Party and/or Internal)
    4. d. Academic/Program Requirements
    5. e. Work Experience Requirements
    6. f. Examinations
    7. g. Language Requirements
    8. h. Fees
    9. i. Third Parties
    10. j. Typical Length of the Registration Process
    11. k. Accredited Programs
    12. l. Internal Review/Appeal Process
  4. 4. BRIDGING PROGRAMS
  5. 5. MUTUAL RECOGNITION AGREEMENTS
  6. 6. APPLICANTS’ INTERACTIONS WITH REGULATORY BODY
    1. a. Nature and Frequency of Communication
    2. b. Backlogs
    3. c. Complaints Regarding the Registration Process
  7. 7. CHANGES SINCE THE 2005 SURVEY
  8. 8. REGISTRATION INFORMATION AND STATISTICS
  9. 9. SOURCES

ISBN 978-1-4249-6488-8 [HTML English version]


1. INTRODUCTION

The Office of the Fairness Commissioner (OFC) undertook a study of registration practices of Ontario's regulated professions during the fall and winter of 2007–2008. The purpose of the study was to understand each regulated profession's 2007 registration practices and to establish baseline data and information to enable the OFC to measure progress as it fulfills its mandate under the Fair Access to Regulated Professions Act, 2006.

This report reflects the registration practices of the Ontario Association of Certified Engineering Technicians and Technologists as of December 31, 2007. Information in this report was gathered from:

The Ontario Association of Certified Engineering Technicians and Technologists also provided registration information and statistics for 2005, 2006 and 2007 through a standard spreadsheet designed by the OFC.

An analysis and summary of the findings for all of the regulated professions is contained in the OFC's Ontario’s Regulated Professions: Report on the 2007 Study of Registration Practices.

2. BACKGROUND OF THE REGULATORY BODY

a. Legislation

The Ontario Association of Certified Engineering Technicians and Technologists (OACETT) operates in accordance with the OACETT Act, 1984, a private member’s bill. OACETT is not regulated under a ministry.

b. Protected Titles

Professions in the fields of engineering and applied science technology are not regulated in Ontario (or in any other part of Canada). Therefore, engineering and applied science technicians and technologists can work without being registered. However, to work under one of the following protected titles, a person must be fully certified and registered with OACETT:

It is illegal to operate under one of these protected titles without certification by OACETT.

OACETT recently launched a program with the Ministry of Transportation Ontario to provide certification to road construction contract administration specialists. There are currently three protected road construction contract administration designations:

Details about the specific requirements for each of the road construction contract administration designations can be found on the OACETT website.

Technicians and technologists trained in engineering or applied science technology who are not certified may call themselves technicians, engineering technicians, technologists or engineering technologists; however, may not place “certified” in front of their title.

c. Definition of the Profession

Certified engineering and applied science technicians and technologists specialize in the following engineering or applied science disciplines:

Certified engineering and applied science technicians and technologists work for consulting firms, manufacturers, industries, utilities, educational institutions, the service sector and government in a variety of positions ranging from project manager, maintenance supervisor and quality analyst to professor, president and chief executive officer. They usually work as part of an engineering team, but may also work as consultants operating on their own or in partnerships.

d. Labour Market/Economic Trends

There are many opportunities for employment in engineering and applied science technology in Ontario. One reason is that technicians and technologists now do the work that was previously done by engineers and tradespeople. Automation and robotics have decreased the need for some skilled trades, but increased the need for technicians who are able to set up, diagnose and repair these complex systems. The growing use of engineering software has made it possible for technologists to do many calculations, design and process controls and other tasks. This trend is seen in the consulting, engineering, construction, mining, and oil and gas fields, among others.

Since OACETT is a voluntary association, the designations provided by OACETT are not necessary in order to work as an engineering or applied science technician or technologist. Of the employers responding to an OACETT salary survey, 67 per cent require certification. OACETT noted the trend that as the economy moves toward a period of recession, securing a position as an engineering or applied science technician or technologist becomes more competitive, and therefore more engineering and applied science technicians and technologists seek the certified designations provided by OACETT.

e. New Developments Within the Profession

The general public’s awareness of OACETT certifications has been increasing through the help of academic institutions and the Government of Ontario.

f. Staffing

OACETT employs 23 full-time staff, with eight of those individuals heavily involved in some stage of the registration process. OACETT also hires 20 examiners on a part-time basis to carry out the assessment of applications. These 20 individuals constitute the Admissions Committee. The Admissions Committee meets twice a month, and each of the examiners is paid on an hourly basis.

3. REGISTRATION PRACTICES

a. Registration Requirements and Application Process

i. Registration Requirements

To be eligible for certification as a certified engineering or applied science technician or technologist in Ontario, an applicant must:

ii. Application Process

In order to complete an Application for Certification, an applicant will need the following supporting documents:

All applicants become associate members upon the receipt and acceptance of their application by OACETT. Associate members can access the benefits of membership as soon as they apply, such as participation in the Canadian Technical Employment Network (CTEN), OACETT’s online jobs database. Once applicants are registered as associate members they become eligible to write the Professional Practice Exam (PPE). Applicants will be able to track their progress to certification on the OACETT website.

Associate members whose training and experience are approved and who pass the required exams (and C.E.T. applicants who have successfully completed a Technology Report) will be certified and registered as either certified technicians, applied science technologists, or certified engineering technologists.

b. Documentation Required from Internationally Trained Individuals

i. Standard Documentation

The documents required of internationally trained applicants for certification with OACETT are the same as for applicants from domestic institutions. If internationally trained individuals cannot arrange for official transcripts to be sent from their post-secondary institutions, notarized photocopies of original transcripts are acceptable.

Academic documents that are not in English or French must be translated into a notarized English translation prepared by a service that is certified by the Association of Translators and Interpreters of Ontario (ATIO).

ii. Options for Applicants with Unavailable/Destroyed Documents

OACETT has never faced a situation where an internationally trained individual has come to it with missing documents. However, it is designing a Prior Learning Assessment Review that could address such cases.

c. Credential Assessment (Third Party and/or Internal)

The Institute of Engineering Technology of Ontario (IETO) Board is the certification and registration arm of OACETT. IETO’s Admissions Committee is the panel of expert members that reviews and evaluates the content of an applicant’s post-secondary education and experience. Once an applicant submits an application and the required documents, the Admissions Committee will formally assess his/her qualifications and work experience to determine if the applicant’s level of training and experience are equivalent to Ontario’s standards. It takes approximately two to three months from the time OACETT receives an application and documents for the applicant to be notified of the Admissions Committee’s decision. Once the IETO Board has approved an applicant’s registration, he/she is notified by mail or e-mail.

If the Admissions Committee finds that the applicant has the appropriate minimum academic training, he/she will be registered as an associate member. The committee will then determine if there are any additional requirements that the applicant must complete before certification. If the applicant’s academic training does not meet the requirements for certification, he/she will be advised of what further training is needed. The applicant may be asked to complete technical subjects relevant to his/her discipline for registration, or to write technical exams set by OACETT.

In evaluating the credentials of eligible candidates for certification, OACETT works from a database of accredited institutions. Also in this database is a list of institutions that, though not accredited, have been evaluated and listed as partially equivalent. Individuals with academic credentials from these institutions may be able to upgrade their academic qualifications at another institution in order to attain equivalency with the OACETT-accredited programs.

d. Academic/Program Requirements

Certified technicians must have a diploma from a recognized engineering or applied science technician program at a post-secondary educational institute; or have passed advanced technical courses; or have earned certificates recognized by the Institute of Engineering Technology of Ontario (IETO), OACETT’s registration arm.

Certified engineering technologists or applied science technologists must have a diploma from a recognized program in engineering or applied science technology at a post-secondary educational institute; or have passed advanced courses in technology; or have earned certificates recognized by IETO.

e. Work Experience Requirements

To become certified technicians, certified engineering technologists or applied science technologists, applicants must have two years of work experience in their chosen discipline. OACETT requires one of those years to be acquired in Canada to ensure that the applicants are familiar with local codes, practices and standards. Those who have taken a “code course” such as the Ontario Building Code or Ontario Electrical Code may have their experience requirement reduced.

An applicant for certification must provide a resumé, a detailed job description and three professional references. A supervisor must sign each page of the job description. These documents will serve as proof of an applicant’s work experience and will be used to assess whether an applicant’s work experience meets OACETT’s requirements.

Voluntary work may be recognized. Co-op experience may be credited at 50 per cent of the time worked up to a maximum of six months of accredited experience. Work experience requirements may be exempted further if an applicant has taken courses on jurisdictional codes. However, the Canadian experience requirements cannot be reduced to less than six months.

An applicant who does not have Canadian experience but meets the academic requirements will be registered as an associate member until the requisite Canadian work experience has been attained.

f. Examinations

i. Professional Practice Examination

Once an Application for Certification has been reviewed for minimum registration requirements and accepted, the applicant will be registered as an associate member and will be eligible to write the Professional Practice Examination (PPE), which covers law, ethics and business practice. Successful completion of this exam is a non-exemptible requirement for certification with OACETT.[1] Additional technical examinations may be set for individuals whose academic credentials are not equivalent to one of OACETT’s accredited programs.

The PPE is usually held four times each year, normally in February, June, September and November. Exam centres are set up throughout Ontario. OACETT will notify eligible candidates of the exam dates and locations. Examinations can be written in the more remote regions of Ontario, outside of Ontario, or outside of Canada if they are invigilated by a certified engineering technologist, a professional engineer, a police officer or another professional acceptable to OACETT.

Eligible candidates for examination may write the PPE at any time after they have been registered as associate members. Candidates should apply for the exam at least two months prior to the exam date to ensure that they have sufficient time to study.

The PPE is a 3½-hour exam consisting of both multiple-choice and case study questions.[2] It is based on Canadian civil law, the OACETT Act and the code of ethics. The exam contains questions about the legal responsibilities that certified technicians and technologists have to the public, to employers and to themselves. Applicants can take advantage of two methods to prepare for the exam:

When applicants apply for the examination, OACETT will send them the necessary study materials, including a study outline and a study manual. The manual is included in the cost of the exam.

The examination package (study manual and examination) costs $250 plus GST and shipping and handling. The fee is non-refundable. Candidates can download the OACETT Act, 1998 and By-Law 18 from their site. The OACETT Act and By-Law 18 are permitted in the exam room.

ii. C.E.T. Technology Report

Applicants to OACETT for certification as certified engineering technologists must submit a Technology Report (TR) unless they graduated from a nationally accredited program. The TR assesses applicants’ ability to effectively describe an engineering problem in detail and examine it. The TR should provide appropriate discussion and well-structured recommendations and conclusions.

The first step in completing the TR is to submit a proposal for the report. Once OACETT examiners approve the proposal, applicants must submit the report within one year and must earn a grade of “satisfactory.”

An applicant may submit a proposal for the TR at any time after he/she has been registered as an associate member and has been notified by mail or e-mail of the specific certification requirements. It is recommended, however, that the TR be completed last.

The report must:

An optional, two-day Technology Report Writing Seminar is available to assist members in writing and submitting a successful proposal and Technology Report to attain certification as certified engineering technologists. The full set of guidelines for the Technology Report is available on the OACETT website.

g. Language Requirements

Engineering and applied science technicians and technologists are not required to pass an English-language test when applying for certification with OACETT. However, the Professional Practice Exam requires knowledge and understanding of English terms for engineering and applied science technology and the ability to interpret written texts. Generally, this would be equivalent to achieving a “7” on a standard English-language assessment scale such as the Canadian Language Benchmarks Assessment.

h. Fees

The fees for registration with OACETT are listed below in Canadian dollars. All fees listed are non-refundable unless stated otherwise.

2007 Fee Schedule
OACETT Membership Annual Fees Amount GST (6%) Total

Certified

185.40

11.12

196.52

Associate

148.32

8.90

157.22

New graduate

50.00

3.00

53.00

Student 1, 2 or 3

50.00

3.00

53.00

Retired member

61.80

3.71

65.51

Road construction contract administration specialist

70.00

4.20

74.20

Non-resident

64.89

3.89

68.78

P. Eng./architect

64.89

3.89

68.78

Application Fees Amount GST (6%) Total

Regular application

145.00

8.70

153.70

College staff/faculty application

50.00

3.00

53.00

Road construction application

80.00

4.80

84.80

Dual registration application

50.00

3.00

53.00

Other Fees Amount GST (6%) Total

Transfer in

50.00

3.00

53.00

Reclassification acceptance

50.00

3.00

53.00

Reinstatement

100.00

6.00

106.00

PPE seminar

290.00

 

290.00

By-Law 18

10.00

0.60

10.60

Admission counselling, per 45 minutes

95.00

5.70

100.70

PPE critique

125.00

7.50

132.50

Replacement certificate

50.00

3.00

53.00

Mature applicant assessment

500.00

30.00

530.00

Mature applicant file review

275.00

16.50

291.50

Technology Report Writing Seminar

349.00

20.94

369.94

Examinations Amount GST (6%) Total

PPE rewrite

150.00

 

150.00

Technical exam

395.00

 

395.00

Dialysis exam

135.00

 

135.00

PPE Exam & Study Materials Amount GST (6%) Total

PPE Exam & Study Materials

250.00

7.20

257.20

Shipping

8.00

0.48

8.48

Total

258.00

7.68

265.68

Plus By-Laws

10.00

0.60

10.60

Total

268.00

8.28

276.28

i. Third Parties

Name of Third Party Relationship to Regulatory Body

Canadian Council of Technicians and Technologists (CCTT)

National council of the provincial licensing associations. The CCTT also accredits college programs in Canada and initiates MRAs with other countries.

j. Typical Length of the Registration Process

OACETT has recently imposed a time limit on the registration process. Ontario graduates from accredited institutions who have all of their academic credentials have three years from the time of application to attain certification. Applicants from non-accredited institutions have six years to fulfill any outstanding course requirements and complete the remaining steps toward registration.

k. Accredited Programs

The following post-secondary programs either maintain an accredited status currently or have maintained accreditation over a certain period of time in the past but are no longer accredited.

The list here includes only Ontario programs. For a full list of accredited programs in Canada and for more details regarding the program accreditation process, visit the CCTT website.

Algonquin College, School of Advanced Technology, Ottawa
Program Name Program Level Discipline National Accreditation

Computer Systems Technician

Technician

Information Technology

2004 –

Cambrian College of Applied Arts and Technology, Sudbury
Program Name Program Level Discipline National Accreditation

Automation Engineering Technology (formerly Instrumentation Engineering Technology-Industrial)

Technologist

Electronics

2004–

Civil Engineering Technology

Technologist

Civil

2003–

Electronics Engineering Technology

Technologist

Electronics

2004–2007

Geological Engineering Technology

Technologist

Mineral

2004–

Mining Engineering Technology

Technologist

Mineral

2004–

DeVry Institute of Technology, Toronto Campus
Program Name Program Level Discipline National Accreditation

Electronics Engineering Technician

Technician

Electronics

1996–2002

Electronics Engineering Technology

Technologist

Electronics

1996–2004

Georgian College of Applied Arts and Technology, Barrie
Program Name Program Level Discipline National Accreditation

Mechanical Engineering Technology — Automotive Manufacturing

Technologist

Mechanical

2005–

RCC Institute of Technology, Toronto
(formerly RCC College of Technology, formerly Radio College of Canada)
Program Name Program Level Discipline National Accreditation

Computer Networks Engineering Technician

Technician

Information Technology

2001–2004

Computer Networks Engineering Technology

Technologist

Information Technology

2001–

Electronics Engineering Technician

Technician

Electronics

1995–2004

Electronics Engineering Technology

Technologist

Electronics

1995–

Computer Networks Engineering Technology (Post-Graduate)

Technologist

Information Technology

2001–

Seneca College of Applied Arts and Technology, Toronto
Program Name Program Level Discipline National Accreditation

Computer Engineering Technology

Technologist

Information Technology

2005–

Electronics Engineering Technician — Broadband Cable

Technician

Electronics

2005–

Electronics Engineering Technician — Communications

Technician

Electronics

2005–

Electronics Engineering Technician — Computer

Technician

Electronics

2005–

Electronics Engineering Technology — Communications

Technologist

Electronics

2005–

Electronics Engineering Technology — Control Systems

Technologist

Electronics

2005–

Sheridan Institute of Technology and Advanced Learning, Oakville
Program Name Program Level Discipline National Accreditation

Architectural Technician

Technician

Building

2007–

Architectural Technology

Technologist

Building

2007–

l. Internal Review/Appeal Process

Before any official appeal process is launched, OACETT will encourage applicants to submit all possible supporting documentation concerning any disputed requirement. In addition, OACETT will automatically review any file that is being disputed.

Formal appeals may be made to the Registrar in writing and must detail the ground for the appeal. The Registrar will forward the appeal to the Second Review Committee, which will examine it and take the appropriate action.

The Second Review Committee is a committee within the Institute of Engineering Technology of Ontario (IETO), which is itself overseen by OACETT’s Council. This committee is made up of four senior examiners from OACETT’s Admissions Committee; it meets on an as-needed basis as second review requests come in. If members of the Second Review Committee come across a file that they originally reviewed, they will excuse themselves from that part of the meeting. When this process is complete, the Registrar will advise the applicant in writing of the committee’s decision.

All failed Professional Practice Examinations are automatically re-evaluated.

Formal details regarding the appeals procedures can be found in section 6.6 of OACETT’s By-Law 18, which is available on its website.

4. BRIDGING PROGRAMS

OACETT participates as a voluntary member in the Fast Track to Technology Occupations (FTTO) Project with Sheridan College and Centennial College, providing services to internationally trained applicants. OACETT also participates in another project with Settlement and Integration Services Organization (SISO) in Hamilton. This project, called Bridging for Engineering, assists internationally trained individuals to become certified with OACETT. OACETT’s registrar also sits on the Advisory Committee for Engineering Your Future at Skills for Change in Toronto. In addition, OACETT is a participant on the Colleges Integrating Immigrants to Employment (CIITE) project.

5. MUTUAL RECOGNITION AGREEMENTS

OACETT has an agreement with each of the other provincial and territorial associations to allow certified engineering and applied science technicians and technologists to transfer to another province and retain their certified status.

OACETT also has an agreement with the National Institute of Certification in Engineering Technologies (NICET) in the United States and the Institution of Incorporated Engineers (IIE) in the United Kingdom allowing for the mobility of certified members.

Canadian technicians and technologists, represented by the Canadian Council of Technicians and Technologists, are also part of the international labour mobility agreement known as the Sydney Accord of 2001. This agreement allows members to transport their credentials to the engineering bodies that are parties to the agreement. Those bodies include:

6. APPLICANTS’ INTERACTIONS WITH REGULATORY BODY

a. Nature and Frequency of Communication

Starting in July 2008, OACETT will begin enforcing the policy of limiting the registration process to three years for applicants with accredited degrees.

OACETT has recently implemented a policy of e-mailing its applicants approximately every two months if it has not heard from them otherwise.

b. Backlogs

Hundreds of pending applications are being held by OACETT. However, these applications are on hold because of outstanding required documents.

c. Complaints Regarding the Registration Process

The Registrar or Deputy Registrar handles any complaints regarding the registration practices of OACETT.

7. CHANGES SINCE THE 2005 SURVEY

The Ministry of Citizenship and Immigration conducted a survey in 2005 to collect information about occupational regulatory bodies in Ontario.

Since the 2005 survey, OACETT has implemented the following changes to its registration practices:

Additionally, OACETT is in the process of designing a Prior Learning Assessment Review (PLAR) that could address the issue of destroyed or missing documents. The PLAR would also be used to assess the experience of members who have worked as engineering or applied science technicians or technologists for a long period of time.

8. REGISTRATION INFORMATION AND STATISTICS

Definitions used in these tables:

Alternative class of licence: a class of licence that enables its holder to practise with limitations; additional registration requirements must be met in order to be fully licensed. The Ontario Association of Certified Engineering Technicians and Technologists has no alternative classes of licence.

Applicant: a person who has applied to start the process for entry to the profession.

Applicant actively pursuing licensing: an applicant who had some contact with OACETT within the year specified.

Inactive applicant: an applicant who had no contact with OACETT within the year specified. OACETT does not keep track of “inactive applicants.” Associate members of OACETT who have allowed their applications to lapse are considered to have resigned.

Member: a person who is currently able to use the protected title or professional designation “certified technician,” “certified engineering technologist” or “applied science technologist.”

Languages in which application information materials were available
Language 2005 2006 2007
English

Yes

Yes

Yes

French

No

No

No

Other(s)      
Countries where internationally educated applicants were initially trained in engineering or applied science technology
Applications received 2005 2006 2007
Largest number

India

India

India

Second-largest number

Pakistan

Pakistan

Philippines

Third-largest number

Philippines

Philippines

Pakistan

Fourth-largest number

Bangladesh

China

China

Fifth-largest number

China

Bangladesh

Bangladesh

Staff employed by the Ontario Association of Certified Engineering Technicians and Technologists
Number of staff 2005 2006 2007
Involved in registration process

9

9

8

Involved in appeals process

5

5

5

Jurisdiction where members were initially trained in engineering or applied science technology (before they were granted use of the protected title or professional designation in Ontario)
Members Ontario Other Canadian Provinces USA Other International TOTAL
Total members

11,077

546

56

2,619

14,298

Non-practising members

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

Applicants processed by the Ontario Association of Certified Engineering Technicians and Technologists in 2005

 

Jurisdiction where members were initially trained in engineering or applied science technology (before they were granted use of the protected title or professional designation in Ontario)
In 2005 (Jan. 1 to Dec. 31) Ontario Other Canadian Provinces USA Other International TOTAL
New applications received

1,496

45

15

1,598

3,154

Applicants actively pursuing licensing

1,496

45

15

1,598

3,154

Inactive applicants

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

Applicants who met all requirements and were authorized to become members but did not become members

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

Applicants who became members

529

25

3

197

754

Applicants who were authorized to receive an alternative class of licence but were not issued a licence

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

Applicants who were issued an alternative class of licence

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

Applicants processed by the Ontario Association of Certified Engineering Technicians and Technologists in 2006

 

Jurisdiction where members were initially trained in engineering or applied science technology (before they were granted use of the protected title or professional designation in Ontario)
In 2006 (Jan. 1 to Dec. 31) Ontario Other Canadian Provinces USA Other International TOTAL
New applications received

1,457

31

7

966

2,461

Applicants actively pursuing licensing

1,457

31

7

966

2,461

Inactive applicants

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

Applicants who met all requirements and were authorized to become members but did not become members

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

Applicants who became members

431

26

3

216

676

Applicants who were authorized to receive an alternative class of licence but were not issued a licence

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

Applicants who were issued an alternative class of licence

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

Applicants processed by the Ontario Association of Certified Engineering Technicians and Technologists in 2007

 

Jurisdiction where members were initially trained in engineering or applied science technology (before they were granted use of the protected title or professional designation in Ontario)
In 2007 (Jan. 1 to Dec. 31) Ontario Other Canadian Provinces USA Other International TOTAL
New applications received

1,716

34

13

659

2,422

Applicants actively pursuing licensing

1,716

34

13

659

2,422

Inactive applicants

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

Applicants who met all requirements and were authorized to become members but did not become members

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

Applicants who became members

466

9

1

246

722

Applicants who were authorized to receive an alternative class of licence but were not issued a licence

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

Applicants who were issued an alternative class of licence

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

9. SOURCES

Canadian Council of Technicians and Technologists website. http://www.cctt.ca. Last accessed: January 16, 2008.

OACETT website. http://www.oacett.org/. Last accessed: January 16, 2008.

OACETT and the Ontario Ministry of Citizenship and Immigration. “Access to the Certified Engineering of Applied Science Technology Profession in Ontario.” Ministry of Citizenship and Immigration website. http://www.citizenship.gov.on.ca. Last accessed: January 16, 2008.

Representatives of OACETT met with staff of the Office of the Fairness Commissioner on January 18, 2008, to provide further information for this study.



[1] Some exceptions are available to members of other professional bodies.

[2] In 2008, OACETT is implementing an all-multiple-choice, computer-based examination.